Utilization Of Biological Materials In Health Care And Medical Practice

The development of biomaterials made it possible to treat serious conditions like heart failure, deep skin wounds, etc.

Biomaterials: What You Need to Know

Biomaterials have been used in healthcare since ancient times because they are so flexible and useful. This makes it possible to treat many complex diseases and conditions, such as heart failure, broken bones, deep skin wounds, etc.

Biomaterials are natural and manufactured materials used to make medical devices or implants that can be put into living tissue. These materials are completely safe for the body and have no bad effects when they come into contact with living tissue.

Biomaterials can replace any hard or soft tissue in our bodies damaged or destroyed by an accident, a disease, or something else. Biomaterials are used in many ways in health care, such as in medical devices, diagnostics, polymeric therapeutics, etc.

Biomaterials are changing the way healthcare is done. They are made in a way that makes them act like biological processes in the body.

Biomaterials and Their Properties

Biocompatibility:

The “biocompatibility” of biomaterials is the most important thing about them. In short, it means “the body’s acceptance of the natural or man-made material that has been implanted.” When a biomaterial is put into the body, it shouldn’t hurt, react, or get rejected, and it shouldn’t get in the way of how the body normally works. The main goal of using biomaterials is to get the body’s cells to respond properly.

Biocompatibility changes over time. It depends on what it’s being used for. For example, a screw or plate made to fix a bone is compatible with bones but not skin.

Host reaction:

How did the body react when the biomaterial was put inside it? Some things don’t do anything, but other things do. Here, many things are important, like the length of time, the reason for the implantation, and the location.

Not dangerous and safe:

The biomaterial needs to work well in the environment of the body.

Mechanical characteristics:

Along with being biocompatible, the biomaterial’s mechanical properties are also very important because they affect the outcome. The body puts the biomaterial under stress, strain, and shear. Some important properties of biomaterials that are studied and evaluated before they are put in the body are their hardness, resistance to corrosion, tensile strength, creep, and yield strength. If a biomaterial is put in the bone, it should be very strong.

Different kinds of biomaterials

Metals and ceramics are examples of inorganic materials.

Polymers, both natural and artificial, are a type of organic material.

Metals are used in places that have to hold weight, such as orthopedic and dental implants. These give biomaterials properties like being strong, tough, and rigid. Metals are used to make the stents that are used in heart surgery. Titanium, stainless steel, and alloys are some metals that can be used as biomaterials (cobalt, magnesium, etc.).

Ceramics are good at getting along with living things and have important properties like being resistant to corrosion, strong, stiff, and hard. They are often used in dentistry and orthopedics. Some examples are alumina and zirconia.

Polymers are large molecules that aren’t harmful to living things. Both the way they look and how they work are very interesting.

Natural Biomaterials

Natural biomaterials are extensive, and to use them in various applications, it is important to understand their properties. “Exploitation” is one of the most important things to worry about when using natural biomaterials. Their use shouldn’t put the ecosystem’s different species in danger.

Biomaterials for Medicine

Use of biomaterials in injuries to the musculoskeletal system: Repairing and growing back musculoskeletal tissue is hard to do in healthcare. Other factors include the type and location of the injury, how the body heals, and the type of biomaterial used.

Biosensor-based glucose monitoring: A big step forward in dealing with diabetes. These sensors are put under the skin and always give blood glucose readings. The sensors alarm when the blood sugar is too low or too high.

Sutures made of spider silk are better than synthetic ones (Prolene polypropylene, Vicryl polyglactin, etc.). Spider silk is also a good biomaterial used to make scaffolds. Spider silk is very strong and has a higher Young’s modulus. It also has good fatigue behavior. The level of crystallinity is low. Studies have shown that nanoparticles of spider mite silk are responsible for cell growth when they enter the cytoplasm (in vitro). Silk made from B. Mori positively affects how cells behave, including their ability to stick together, grow, and change.

Plant-based cellulose is biocompatible, makes cells stick together, and helps new blood vessels grow.

Biomaterial Examples

Complete hip replacement:

The goal of arthroplasty is to make a new joint. The main goal is to improve a patient’s life and make them feel less pain. The prosthesis comprises a femoral stem, a femoral ball, a metal acetabular shell, a UHMWPE liner, and a porous coating. Metal-on-polyethylene, Metal-on-metal, Ceramic-on-polyethylene, and Ceramic-on-ceramic are the types of femoral-acetabular components.

Knee prostheses:

When the knee bends and straightens, it acts like a hinge. The shape of the knee prosthesis and the material it is made of are both important. Total knee replacement and unicondylar knee replacement are the two types.